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Wednesday, October 26, 2011

A: Glossary Draft



This site is a work in progress, and will be a part of an expanded web site under the home address of www://artlynch.org. Any additions, corrections, ideas, guest material are greatly appreciated. Please also review the material located along the right hand column, then contact me at art.lynch@artlynch.org. No funds are collected or directly solicited by this site. Google Ads are used to expand Google search and tools reach. Web assistance and a web master are also being sought. Thank you in advance. -Art Lynch


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A

AAAA - Associated Actors and Artistes of America; umbrella organization for SAG, AFTRA, Equity and other performers' Unions. The four A’s is not a union but a cooperative organization. The letters are more commonly affiliated with the American Advertising Agency Association, one of the entities on the opposite (management) side of the table from the Screen Actors Guild and AFTRA.

AAR- Advance Against Royalties. An interest-free loan that will be recouped prior to any profits from an artist’s royalties.

ABBY SINGER - The shot before the last shot of the day. Named in honor of former first A.D., Abby Singer, who used to call the last shot of the day one shot too early. Term is not in common use.

ABOVE THE LINE- The budget to pay for the creative team, including the producers, directors, writers and actors. Below the line budget includes crew, business support and hard costs such as location and supplies.

ACADEMY OF MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND SCIENCES- An association of professional in all aspects of the motion picture industry formed for a variety of business and networking advantages, including philanthropic activities. The Academy is best known for its annual awards, the Oscars.

ACADEMY PLAYERS DIRECTORY- An encyclopedia of actors photographs published four times a year and provided to casting professionals, primarily on the West Coast, by the Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences. The Players Directory is published in association with the for-profit Break Down Services and is also provided, with additional services, on-line through The Link. Casting Directors use this directory to search for looks or individual actors, often prior to releasing role descriptions to the Breakdown Services. Agents use the Directory to draw producers or casting professionals attention to particular talent listed in the book. http://www.acadpd.org

ACTING- the process of creating the entire reality of a character for an audience, and individual or yourself. The art of or occupation of performing parts in plays, movies, etc.  Serving on behalf of or representing another person, real or imagined. So, what is acting? Acting, as a craft, a profession and an art form, draws a kaleidoscope of definitions and an interpretation, depending on what point of view is used as the measurement. A proud profession, a noble hobby, a mirror on society, a toy for the aristocracy, the maggots of the earth, the royalty of the arts, all have been used to describe a profession said to be the second oldest in recorded history (and sometimes equated to “the oldest profession”). These are all ways actors have been looked upon or seen themselves over the years. It is also fun, rewarding and challenging.

ACTING COACH- A person hired by the actor or a group of actors to help them prepare for the industry or for a particular role.

Click on "read more" below to continue with terms that begin with "A". Please email updates, suggestions, corrections to createcom@gmail.com. Thank you.


Acting schools are vocational training institutions that specialize in courses related to theater arts, motion pictures and television arts. This definition from InfoBeagle.com goes on to present the following view of Acting Schools: The specific curriculum varies rather widely from school to school, but generally you can specialize in the following areas.- Acting
- Contemporary Theater
- Stage Acting
- Acting for TV, Film, and Radio
- Specials performance skills
- Stunt Acting

All students are given a broad base education in the fundamentals of acting regardless of their desired area of concentration. A good fundamental background is necessary to understand the basic role of each specialized vocation in the theater arts.
Most acting schools have a 1 year course that is broken in 3 or four sections that include the fundamentals, focus on and acting specialty and a project that is not only related to the selected specialty, but also includes acting in a theater production.
Since most acting schools are private institutions they are not eligible for government grants and loans. There are scholarships available for the most deserving students and some schools fund work-study and internship programs to help the students fund the cost of the tuition. Special “Career Training” loans are also available for qualified students.
Tuition varies from school to school and program to program. If you are interested in a specialized 8-week workshop you should expect to pay around $4,000. A one year total emersion program can cost as much as $30,000 not counting supplies and equipment charges. There are even some acting schools that charge by the unit (usually around $1000). Nearly all acting schools provide a diploma to completing students and some even issue BA degrees.

ACTING TEACHER- A person who instructs and sometimes coaches groups of actors on their craft, the business and the skills needed to perform on stage, screen, television or any other venue.

ACTION - The command from the director for the scene to begin. It indicates that the camera is rolling and up to speed, and the scene can be brought to life.

ACTOR – The performer of a role or part in a play, movie, television, video or computer story. A term used for both male and female artist who perform in the capacity of creating characters, the perception of reality and advancing a story. Actress is a term that is incorrectly used to indicate a female actor. The term was created by the studio system in the part of the twentieth century to increase box office and facilitate awards and press coverage.  Both men and women are today referred to as actors.

ACTOR ACCESS- A service provided to talent by the Breakdown Services, allowing for casting notices to be viewed by talent. Most motion picture, television and commercial notices are submitted to agents via the Breakdown Services. Only larger searches or sometimes smaller independent productions unwilling to pay he Breakdown Service fees are listed over Actor Access. The service also provides information and other services for talent. http://breakdownservices.com/access.html

ACTORS EQUITY- The union that represents legitimate stage performers, See AEA.

ACTOR’S SITE- a private subscription service providing networking opportunities, seminars, leads, delivery of photos to casting directors and other services for the greater Los Angeles area. http://www.actorsite.com/2join.html



ACTRA- Canadian union with jurisdiction over film, television, commercial and video production talent. ACTRA is the largest of three unions with similar jurisdictions in Canada. SAG Actors from the US may work ACTRA work provided they are covered under a SAG agreement.


A.D.- The Assistant Director also known as Associate Director (the more empowering political correct term). Often a DGA (Directors Guild of America) position with full authority to act on behalf of the director. There are various levels of AD, starting with First AD, followed by multiple levels of “Second AD” positions. The budget, nature and size of the production often determine their individual duties and responsibilities. The First AD is often referred to as “the first” or “number one”, with the seconds referred to an in order or manner determined by the First AD. http://www.dga.org

ADAPTATION- a play, teleplay or film script based on characters and/or story form already existing material in another media. Many projects are adopted from books, short stories, magazine articles and other sources.

ADDED SCENES- when a project is substantially complete, however producers feel that additional scenes are needed, these are called ‘added scenes’. For talent it means the potential of being called back for addition work on a project.

AD LIB- Extemporaneous delivery without relying on a prepared script.

ADR- Automated Dialogue Replacement. Dialogue or human vocal sounds added to a scene in postproduction. Sometimes erroneously called "looping".

ADVERTISING- The propaganda or promotion of projects through all forms of media. This is usually a significant part of marketing expenses.

AE- Artificial Intelligence.  A computer term for self-directing computer images or characters. This technology is being used to augment live actors and background talent, as well as to allow pre-recorded or developed characters in interactive media to make “their own” independent decisions, increasing the entertainment experience.

AEA- Actors' Equity Association; often called simply "Equity". SAG's sister union which represents stage actors. Equity organizes employer by employer, or by geographic area, whereas SAG and AFTRA organize by primarily by industry. http://www.actorsequity.org/home.html

AFI- The American Film Institute. “Advancing and preserving the moving image” is the slogan phrase for AFI, summarizing their mission and their practice. The non-profit organization provides workshops, learning labs for new or interested filmmakers, funds for the restoration and preservation of films and many other projects and services. http://www.AFI.com/

AFM- American Federation of Musicians. A trade union for musicians, not to be confused with AFRA or other unions. http://www.afm.org/

AFRA- The American Federation of Recording Artists (AFRA), representing musicians and others who record music or voice for any media other than broadcast or mass visual media. This organization would take place upon approval of the new AIMA by the membership of the Screen Actors Guild and AFTRA in June 2003. http://www.partnershipforpower.org/

AFTRA - American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. Represents radio artists and news broadcasters, and, in earlier times, television performers. In more recent times, however, television performers may be represented by either AFTRA or SAG, depending on the producer's contract. Discussions about merging the two organizations have been ongoing for several decades, however its defeat in the late 1990’s may make such a merger difficult for decades to com; recent Television & Film and Commercial Contracts have been jointly negotiated. AFTRA represents newscasters, sportscasters, disc jockeys, talk hosts, announcers, on camera actors, video background performers, voice artists, dancers, singers, musicians, recording artists, music video talent, interactive technology performers, a small segment of television and radio producers, a small segment of electronic technicians and professionals in very specific writing fields. While SAG's membership moves rapidly from production to production and employer to employer, much of AFTRA's membership hold regular ongoing jobs, most notably the on air broadcast talent who work fixed hours five or six days a week for a specific employer. AFTRA is structured as both a local and national union. AFTRA locals have widely divergent responsibilities, jurisdictions, dues and sometimes structures. They generate and manage their own treasuries while contributing to the national fund. http://www.aftra.com

AGMA- American Guild of Musical Artists

AGVA- American Guild of Variety Artists

AIMA- Alliance of International Media Artists. The proposed (as of April, 17. 2003) name of a new union that joins AFTRA and SAG under one umbrella made up of three divisions. The divisions would be the Screen Actors Guild representing actors and a large group of artist in the motion picture, television and new media industries. The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists would represent broadcasters who work in radio and television (including news, disc jockeys, talk host and other related fields). The third division would be the American Federation of Recording Artists (AFRA), representing musicians and others who record music or voice for any media other than broadcast or mass visual media. If passed by the membership of the SAG and AFTRA in June 2003, the new umbrella union will allow membership in multiple branches of the overall union. Each of the member unions will be self-governing except for specifics, which are constitutionally empowered to the umbrella organization. http://www.partnershipforpower.org/

AMBIANCE – Ambiance is the mood creates by a room or a physical area and its contents. Ambiance is creative and qualitative.

AMBIENCE- Ambience, not to be confused with ambiance, refers to the acoustical qualities of a room or area, including background noise, echoes, reflections and reverberations. Ambience is physical and technical in nature.

AMERICAN THEATRE WING- ATW is an association of Broadway Theaters, best known for sponsoring the annual Tony Awards. ATW is a philanthropic and service organization established to serve the overall theater and at large community in New York. As AFI does for film, ATW provides workshops, training opportunities and many other programs. http://www.tonys.org/about/wing.html.

The following is from the wing as an addition to the above posting:


Dear Mr. Lynch:

My attention was recently drawn to your glossary for SAG actors and I wanted to point out a couple of things about your entry on the American Theatre Wing.

ATW founded The Tony Awards in 1947, and since 1967 we have produced and presented them in partnership with The Broadway League.

However, ATW is an independent, not for profit service organization dedicated to helping people understand how theatre is made, in the words of the people who make theatre; it is the Broadway League that is an association of Broadway producers, general managers and theatre owners.

In our efforts to serve the theatre community not only in New York but nationally, we have established an extensive multi-media website, with more than 700 hours of free material, separate from that of the Tonys. The ATW site can be found at www.americantheatrewing.org.

Thank you for including us in your glossary and I hope this material can be incorporated into your capsule description of our work.

Sincerely,
Howard Sherman

AMERICAN THEATRE WING- ATW is an association of Broadway Theaters, best known for sponsoring the annual Tony Awards. ATW is a philanthropic and service organization established to serve the overall theater and at large community in New York. As AFI does for film, ATW provides workshops, training opportunities and many other programs. http://www.tonys.org/about/wing.html

  
Howard Sherman
Executive Director
American Theatre Wing
570 Seventh Avenue - Suite 501
New York, NY 10018
P: 212-765-0606 x341
F: 212-307-1910
americantheatrewing.org




ANALOG- Analog signals are the pure linear signals of sound or video, recorded, stored and played back in real time sequence (although they can be edited). Analog recordings have many physical variations in levels and subtleties. Analog recording captures and softens the imperfections of sound and image in ways similar to human eyes and ears, as oppose to recording the exact impulses in as precise a detail as digital recording techniques. Many artists prefer analog masters over digital recording.

ANGELS- Theater patrons who donate large amounts of funds, or invest heavily in theater productions or corporations are called “angels”.

ANSWER PRINT- When film is used the fully edited and refined master print that comes back from the lab ready to be used for producing the release prints used in film distribution.

A&R- Artists and Repertoire. A department of most recording companies responsible for scouting new talent and songs and then coordinating recording producers and artists for possible release under the company’s label.

ARBITRON- a procedure to resolve contract disputes without having to resort to litigation in a court of law.

ASSIGNMENT AND DELIGATION- A contractual clause regulating the transfer of rights and duties under a contract.

ART DIRECTOR- Person who conceives and designs the sets.

Artistic Control- The artist contractually retains all or partial control over the artistic integrity of the material to be recorded, performed or rendered.

ASCAP- The American society of Composers Authors and Publishers, a music industry performing arts organization registering copyright’s and dealing with other artistic and business issues, primarily in the music industry. http://www.ascap.com/

ATMOSPHERE- another word for extras, background talent or background actors. Those people who populate a scene but do not have lines or contribute in a significant way to the primary action (applicable under commercial contracts).

AUDITION- A tryout for a film, TV or stage role. Usually auditions involving reading from the script, but can also require improvisation.

AVAIL - A courtesy situation extended by performer or agent to a producer indicating availability to work a certain job. Avails have no legal or contractual status. The term also applies to the sales of advertising placement into a broadcast schedule or print layout.




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This site is a work in progress, and will be a part of an expanded web site under the home address of www://artlynch.org. Any additions, corrections, ideas, guest material are greatly appreciated. Please also review the material located along the right hand column, then contact me at art.lynch@artlynch.org. No funds are collected or directly solicited by this site. Google Ads are used to expand Google search and tools reach. Web assistance and a web master are also being sought. Thank you in advance. -Art Lynch

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