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Sunday, August 25, 2013

Communication Model Explained and Basic Concepts Related to the Model

The basics of communication can be found several places on the web. A suggested start is the University of Missouri, one of the top communication schools in the nation.

I. Foundation for School and Life Success
A. Introductions to not only the field, but to college and how to survive and prosper.
B. You must use the college requirements and learn the methods utilized at your school.
C. Notes, outlining, references, testing techniques, etc.
D. Assistance available through student services.
E. Use of computer, Angel, Word, Internet and so on.
F. Use of library, outside references, sources, tools.
G. Basic Research skills for life
H. Organizing thoughts
I. Outlining
J. Presenting your ideas effectively


The Shannon and Weaver model

Shannon and Weaver model
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II. Components of a Speech Transaction
A. Situation and Context
B. Speaker / Transmitter / Source
C. Channels / Media
D. Message
E. Symbols / Semantics
F. Encode
G. Decode
H. Feedback
I. Noise / Interference / Screens / Filters
J. Internal Noise
K. External Noise
L. Cultural Noise
M. All three forms of noise are interconnected and interact

N. Semantic Noise is not one of the three forms of noise, it means the signals or symbols of a transmission are not being understood properly due to outside factors (the other three forms of noise)
O. The components of a speech transaction occur simultaneously and are interdependent

P. All communication is transactional, involves a two-way passage of information, emotion, intent.

III. Intro into basic course concepts
A. Communication Model
1. Transmitter,
- Intent of Transmitter,
- What was meant to be communicated
a. Sender,
b. Source
c. Speaker
2. Channel,
3. Medium. Media
4. Message, intended message
5. Receiver,
6. Listener,
7. T2 (not Arnold!)
8. Feedback
9. Encode
10. Decode

11. Codes
a. Verbal,
- Words, actual language, vocabulary
b. Vocal,
- How you say the words, voice, inflection, etc.
c. Visual,
d. - Everything else, see, hear, smell, touch, etc.

12. Proofs,
- How we prove and argument, why we believe things
f. Ethos, Credibility, Power, Likeability, Trust, Source, Expertise, Position
g. Logos, Logic (some variance by culture)
h. Pathos, Emotion, Emotional Appeal
i. Mythos, Cultural, Cultural shorthand, David v. Goliath, Patriotism. Flag, etc.


12. Noise: Screens, \ Filters, Interference, anything that gets in the way of the message

13. Internal Screens,
- Whatever happens inside your mind or body to interfere with understanding the message as intended, or to interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood
- Internal noise is what is occurring inside the transmitter or receiver. For example an event earlier in the day or in the life of the individual could change the way they interpret or send signals. Physical, psychological, cognitive forms of interference may impact how message is encoded or decoded, interpreted or received. Disabilities, health, fatigue, hunger, external events impact on how you feel or think, and unrelated thoughts are examples of internal noise.

14. External Screens
- Whatever happens outside of your mind or body to interfere with understanding the message as intended, or to interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood.
- External noise is what occurred outside of the sender or receive. This could include sound, smell, lighting, temperature, time of day, events occurring at the same time as the message, other messages conflicting or concurrent with the intended message, environment, etc.

15. Cultural Screens
- Differences in culture (including Demographic, Psychographic differences) that interferes with understanding the message as intended.
- Differences in culture interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood.
- Cultural noise comes from the self-identity, backgrounds, beliefs and culture of the sender and/or the receiver.
- Messages can have differing meanings. Protocol, prolific, etc.

16. Semantic Noise, not understanding the words, not understanding the language
- Not one of the three forms of screens or noise, because semantic can cross internal, external and cultural boundaries and it simply means tat symbols (usually words) are not being transmitted or interpreted the same between parties in the communication transaction.


17. Demographics as way of understanding yourself and your audience
a. Age
b. Gender (Sex)
c. Psychographics and Culture
d. Age and Gender are fixed properties
e. Psychographic is everthing else you can measure or put a number to
f. Psychographic differs as is is self-identified, what you volunteer yourself as


B. The Communication Process
1. Speaker/ Sender/ Transmitter
a. The source of the message
b. Requires technical skills
c. Requires enthusiasm and active stimulation
d. Involves intent
e. Requires understanding the Receiver
f. Requires decisions on how to send message
g. Requires knowledge, processing preparation and understanding

2. Channel/ media
a. How the message is sent
b. Tolls used to send message
c. Media or Medium utilized in encoding and decoding message
d. Means by which the message is communicated
e. One of more channels may be used
f. May involve technical support or intervention
g. Could be as simple as eye contact

3. Message
a. Whatever is being communicated
b. Intended and unintended messages can be transmitted
c. Verbal and non-verbal transmissions
d. May or may not be interpreted properly by receiver

4. Listener/ Receiver/ Audience
a. Every message is filtered through the listeners frame of reference
b. Listeners frame of reference is the sum total of their experiences, goal, knowledge, values, attitudes and beliefs.
c. No source and receiver have the exact frame of reference
d. A message and its transmission must be adapted to the audience
e. Noise gets in the way of the communication

5. Feedback
a. Message sent by listener to the speaker, receiver to the transmitter
b. The receiver becomes the transmitter
c. The transmitter become the receiver
d. Because all communication is transactional (involving a transaction of information, feelings or ideas) feedback operates under the same principals and rules as the original transmission and channel
e. Feedback may be immediate or delayed
f. Noise/ Screens/ Filter interfere with both the original transmission and the feedback
g. Successful speakers adjust their message based on careful studied reception of feedback

6. Interference/ Screens/ Noise / Filters
a. Anything that impeded the communication of a message
b. Can be internal or external
c. May also involve internal and external cultural filters
d. External comes from outside, physical or psychological, of the speaker or listener
e. Internal involves anything, physical or psychological, involving what is inside the sender or receiver, speaker or listener.
f. External may be noise, lighting, major events, size or shape of room, sound, temperature, other speakers and so forth
g. Internal may be poor listening skills, lack of concentration, the other 50-% of what is going on in your brain, physical ailments or disabilities, fatigue and so forth.
h. Successful speakers overcome interference in a wide range of ways, numerous times during their message

7. Encode
a. Selecting symbols to communicate a message
b. Determining how to transmit the message
c. Combination of verbal, vocal, visual and other
d. Anticipating the receiver

8. Decode
a. Understanding symbols uses to communicate a message
b. Understanding the intent of the message
c. Understanding and translating verbal, visual and other codes
d. Anticipating the intent of the sender
9. Codes
a. How a message is encoded
b. Verbal are the words used, the vocabulary
c. Vocal is how the words are said or transmitted, vocal tones, inflections, etc.
d. Visual is everything else, all sight, sound, smell, tactile touch, etc.

10. Proofs
a. Ethos - credibility, real and perceived
b. Logos – logic, common pattern of thought to a group
c. Pathos – emotional appeals
d. Mythos – myths, common stories and shorthand by culture

11. Demographics
a. Explains an individual, group, audience, market or culture
b. Numbers
c. Age
d. Gender or sex
e. Psychographic (anything else you can put a number to)

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