Monday, March 30, 2015

You hae to love it!

Study, find all the good teachers and study with them, get involved in acting to act, not to be famous or for the money. Do plays. It's not worth it if you are just in it for the money. You have to love it."
- Philip Seymour Hoffman

You Are Enough: Why You Need to Just Be Yourself in Commercial Auditions

You Are Enough: Why You Need to Just Be Yourself in Commercial Auditions

People often ask me how they can stand out when we see so many people for each role in commercial casting. For example, a theatrical casting director may only call in 20 actors for a co-star role, while we’ll often see 50 or more per role for a commercial project. That brings your overall chances of booking the job down from an already measly five-ish percent to just two-ish percent or less!

The answer is simple, and many of you still won’t believe me when I say it, but it’s true, nonetheless: Just be yourself. You are enough, just the way you are. No one else looks exactly like you, laughs like you, walks or talks the way you do. You already are a unique character with your own essence and mannerisms. It would be nearly impossible for another actor to perfectly mimic what already is totally effortless and natural for you.

And yet, so many actors I meet find it so terrifying. They don’t believe they are interesting enough or entertaining enough or attractive enough as they are. So, they cover up all that beautiful individuality and put on a “character” that they think the client is looking for, which is always worse. Always. Why?

Because if we need you to play a character other than yourself, we will tell you. We will be so clear about it, because if that’s what our client wants, it’s our job to get that from you. So always start from a place of just being you. Be fearlessly, unapologetically yourself and you will start to book like never before. Instead of a bland, generic, cardboard cutout of what you think will please the client, you’ll be a real, cool person.

I had a brilliant, handsome, leading-man type theater actor break down in tears in one of my commercial workshops at the very thought that he was enough just as he was. He had spent his whole theater career putting on character after character to the point, he said, that he didn’t even know who he was, in acting. He’d never just been himself ever, in an acting situation.

Take it from Meryl Streep, arguably one of the best on-camera actors of all time, who said, “Acting is not about being someone different. It’s finding the similarity in what is apparently different, then finding myself in there.”

So, the question changes from, “Should I be myself?” to “Which side of myself should I be?” All acting is storytelling. Commercials are no different. They just happen to be very short stories. They also tend to be very simple, clear stories. On top of that, you have us directing the session telling you exactly what the story is and what we want you to do. You don’t have to do any text analysis whatsoever! All you need to do is what we direct you to do and put your own stank on it while you do it.

If it’s a silly burger commercial, you’ll be your playful self; the one you put on when you’re playing with your friends, kids, nieces or nephews. If it’s a heartfelt testimonial commercial, you’ll be your chill, down-to-earth, grateful self. Each of us has felt love, lust, pain, loss, anger, hope, excitement, joy, etc. It’s all within you. 

Every story you will ever have to tell as an actor contains elements that are already within you. Yes, even the twisted stuff—because we’re all screwed up, too, in our own ways. Hey, we chose to be actors for a living, didn’t we? How messed up is that?

It will take some time to process and accept that you are enough, but you are. Get yourself into an acting class environment where you can explore that. Take all the pressure off yourself to be entertaining and interesting, and just focus on the story. Just make your choices, do your preparation and then let go—be yourself and just have an experience

If you just have an authentic experience, free from any expectations or focus on outcomes, we will be right there with you. And we will love you.

We will love you.

3 Ways to Impress CDs Without Having an Impressive Résumé

3 Ways to Impress CDs Without Having an Impressive Résumé

This is a question that I get all the time. Many of you are looking to be proactive but get a little stuck when it comes to how to market yourself to a casting director when you haven’t booked anything big. Here is my take on some things that most of you already do…

1. Casting director workshops. I know that in L.A. they are huge and many actors are signing up for them, so here is what I suggest. Learn how to master the audition before you go to any workshop. It goes against much of what we learn as actors. There is no“craft” in auditioning however, to me, mastering it is an art form. Now here is a terrible reality that many of you know I am getting vocal about…. I have worked with over 400 actors many of them working and not one—not one—has known how to dominate the material and kill it in the room. That might sound aggressive but please realize that when you do these workshops you are going up against actors who have been doing this for years—actors who are seen by casting directors because their agents have submitted them. I have already offended a few people because I am going against traditional training in my work. I respect and honor the craft and bow down to the greats—I would not be where I am today without learning their methods. However, if you are an actor and you are auditioning for any type of film or TV then I highly suggest you learn the art of auditioning first…otherwise you are wasting your very valuable time and money.

2. Create content. We are in the Wild Wild West here in terms of what is happening in the industry. There are so many opportunities for us, it just takes a lot more work. So create content. If you look on my YouTube channel you will see what I did with one of my acting classes. In a one-shot style we created 2–3-minute original scenes. We worked together as a team and everyone had a job each time we shot. Then two of my most Type A actors picked 12 of the best comedies and sent a hard copy DVD to all the CDs who are known for casting half-hour, and then did the same for drama. Not only were they able to use those scenes on their reels but also actors were called in to audition for many of the casting directors we had reached out to.

3. Do a play. This does not mean you need to go and do some weird experimental theater. Find something that is TV-friendly. One of the restaurants near where I live has a theater upstairs and asked me if I could do something with my class on a Sunday. So along with Jonathan Barron and Barrett Shuler we wrote a very funny, smart, relevant play that was 36 minutes and moved at the speed that TV does. We did a tremendous marketing job, the restaurant threw in bottomless Mimosas and it was a huge success. And yes, actors were called in from some of the casting directors that were there.

So…there you have it. The bottom line is that as actors, five or 10 years ago, were submitted by agents and then went on auditions. Now actors need to be their own agent, manager, director, writer, producer, grip, and well pretty much everything else. That requires huge motivation, unshakeable relentlessness, and a passionate drive to do everything you can to achieve success.

3 Ways to Show CDs You’re Ready to Do the Job

3 Ways to Show CDs You’re Ready to Do the Job

When I hear actors talk about their auditions, I often hear them say that they gave a “good audition,” or that it “went well.” They felt “OK in the room,” the read felt “pretty solid,” and the people in the room “seemed to like them.”
Almost as if it was a test and they passed with a solid B.
Not only is that not nearly good enough, it entirely misses the point of what an audition actually is.

At its best and highest form, an audition is you showing the people in the room that you are ready and able to do the job—that you have the chops at that very moment to walk onto the set and deliver as a multi-faceted, creative, and flexible actor as well as a solid, strong, and dependable professional.

You need a way of working that allows you to exceed all of the actors who are just preparing to do well in the room. You need to prepare in a way that allows you to exhibit the greatness that lands you on the set, doing the job. 

Here are three of the things that need to happen if you’re going to be seen as “set ready.”

1. Variety of choice. Let’s first be clear that this doesn’t mean making a series of random and bizarre decisions for the sake of trying to be original. It’s about finding the choices inside of you that connect you to the words on the page in the most dynamically truthful way possible. A television director friend of mine says that he likes to see a range of choices in the audition so that he knows he has options when the scenes are being shot. He may decide at the last minute to change the tone of a scene, and needs to know that the actors have the range to handle different scenarios. More often than not though, when you’re on the set you’ll hear the director say, “Just throw it all away and say the words.” That’s their decision for the scene in that moment, but if that’s all that you show them in the audition, they may assume that’s all that you can do and will choose someone who gave them more options. The variation in the choices may be large or very slight depending on the scene, but remember, the actor who makes the lines come alive in the most interesting and unique way almost always gets the job.

2. Presence. A strong audition enables the people in the room to picture you on set doing the job. If you’re anxious and edgy, they’ll just see an actor having a rough audition. If you’re bold and powerful, they’ll see a high functioning actor who will be in control every step of the way. A big part of the picture they have of you is your professionalism in the room and a big part of being a strong professional in the room is acceptance. Job-getting actors accept the room just the way it is—nothing is good or bad, it’s the room they have on that day. The calm sense of control that comes from this acceptance is both winning and empowering. It allows you to take and hold your space with authority, as well as control the pace and the flow of the audition. Acceptance brings strength.

There is also an ease to the actors who book the job. There is no neediness or sense of apology. These actors are confident, natural, and present in every moment of the process. Their works is done and inside of them so that their minds, bodies, and hearts are free to take in and be a part of their surroundings and connect to everyone in the room without distraction. They are someone you look forward to working with—someone you like. And remember, people hire people they like.

3. Adjustments. Nothing tells the people in the room if you’re ready for the set more than how you handle an adjustment. By handling them well you can show that you’re a smart, creative actor who has great control over his work, and that you have the skill to move easily and effectively in all directions.

By weaving adjustments into the fabric of your initial reading, you’ll show that you understand that an adjustment is a shift, not an overhaul, and that you can take direction and incorporate it subtly and truthfully. 

Adjustments will reveal whether you’re under- or over-prepared. If you’re underprepared or winging it, you won’t have enough control over the piece to know what you’re adjusting and the whole thing will fall apart. If you’re over-prepared and have run the piece 100 times or so, you won’t be able to shift or move because the piece will be cemented into your head one way and one way only.

Actors who book know that a great audition, and a great performance for that matter, is the perfect combination of preparedness and flexibility. Adjustments will be a key component in showing if you’re that actor.

An audition isn’t an end unto itself. It’s a job interview, and in order for it to be a success you need to exhibit the skills, presence, and confidence of the job-getter, not the tentative, shallow people pleasing dullness of one more actor auditioning.

Good auditions usually end in the room; great ones can get you to the set

The 3 Fastest Ways to Memorize Lines

The 3 Fastest Ways to Memorize Lines

The 3 Fastest Ways to Memorize Lines

What’s the best way to memorize quickly? Perhaps you have 12 pages of sides for a callback tomorrow morning, or you have to memorize a two-hour play in a week because someone just dropped out, or maybe you signed up for a casting director pay-to-meet, and at the last minute decided to memorize a really overdone monologue from “Mean Girls.” (Just me?) 

You have no idea how you are going to learn the lines this quickly. Maybe you’ve tried putting the script under your pillow hoping to learn the lines by osmosis (doesn’t work), or you’ve tried having your four roommates sing your lines to you at three in the morning (totally creepy). You’ve tried everything, and it doesn’t work. What do you do? The old method of covering your lines with your hand never seems to work, as the lines always feel like they are on the surface, and not ingrained—sort of like cramming for a math test—and will be out the window the second you finish. 
I’ve tried many different ways over the years, and I found these are by far the quickest ways to memorize lines.

1. The Rehearsal 2 app. This is hands down my favorite way for actors to learn lines. It’s the scene partner that never gets tired of running lines with you. If you can get past the fact that it’s $19.99, this is a game changer. You can highlight the lines in the app, record the other character’s lines, and use it as a teleprompter, which will scroll through the script as you are reading it. Then it just keeps playing on a loop. The secret for me is to whisper my lines and read the other character’s lines out loud when I’m recording, so I don’t get too caught up in the way I’m saying my lines, but I know how much time I have to say them. I will literally put my iPad on a chair and pretend I’m running lines with someone. It’s so much better than a tape recorder. Love it. (Time: Approx. 30 minutes for a 12-page scene.)

2. Write them out. This is quicker than you think, and you always remember the lines word for word when you are done. I have used this for memorizing longer scenes with lots of speeches. I find this works really well because you are connecting your mind to the action of writing the lines down and seeing the lines at the same time. They seem to go to a deeper part of your brain. I prefer writing them by hand instead of typing. 

Write out just your lines in one big paragraph, then run through the scene out loud. Then do this five more times, breaking your lines into thoughts each time. The last time you write them out, see if you can do it without looking at the script, and just think of the other person’s lines. What’s great about it is that you aren’t memorizing what the other characters are saying, and can really listen in the scene and not anticipate the lines. (Time: Approx one hour for a 12-page scene.) 

3. Run the lines with someone many times. Preferably an actor, not your friend who was an extra on “Blue Bloods” one time, likes to coach you, and keeps reading the stage directions out loud. The first time you run through it, just listen to the words. Focus on pausing between each line, really absorbing what’s being said and going over the scene many times in many different ways, playing with intention, actions, and pacing. Try it sitting and standing, and allow yourself to make mistakes and explore every way not to do it, while also getting more and more comfortable with the lines. Focus on the “why” and the circumstances, which will help you learn the scene on a deeper level. If you forget your lines, you can find your way back because you really understand what’s going on. (Time: Approx. 30 minutes to an hour.)

Personally, I usually use a combination of these three techniques to prepare for every audition. I will write down the lines, then run them with the Rehearsal 2 app, then with another actor, during which time I will speed through them as fast as I can (the real test to see how well you know them). After that I will improvise the lines, and see if I can come up with some added moments and reactions between the lines that feel authentic to me, in a way that I would say them. Then I layer the writer’s words back on and blend it all together. This way, I am memorized, but also flexible and open to direction and change.

At the end of the day you want the lines to seem like second nature, genuine and authentic, as if they are coming from a real person with real thoughts and ideas. Auditions cause anxiety, and while you may have them memorized at home, when you walk into the room it’s easy to get distracted and forget. As actors, we need to prepare for this, and be very, very memorized (but not locked into a pattern), so that we are confident, relaxed, committed, listening, and open to direction.

9 Camera Shots All Actors Should Know

By KC Wright | Backstage​

Whether creating your own content or acting in a major studio production, understanding the filmmakers’ craft will improve your performance and make you the crew’s best friend. Dipping your toe into film and television? Here are nine basic shots types that all on-camera actors should know!

The Establishing Shot
Remember the outside of Jerry Seinfeld’s favorite diner or the house on the hill in “Psycho”? Frequently used in ’90s sitcoms and classic films, the establishing shot is an extremely wide view—often an exterior—used to the indicate the place, time, or concept of the scene that follows. While it may not contain any actors, placement of characters within the establishing shot can be a great tool for indicating relationship before the start of the scene.

The Master Shot
The master differs from the establishing shot in that it covers all of the action of the scene, providing a wide view that will later be cut with tighter angles and close ups. Since it is often the first shot to be filmed, actors help the director out by choosing a physical action that can be repeated take after take without hindering the creative process.

The Tracking Shot (or Dolly Shot)
This complicated shot follows the movement of actors, objects, or vehicles in the frame by mounting the camera on a dolly or using a skilled Steadicam operator. Frequently used in action movies and episodic television—think gurneys wheeling through an ER or swift walks through the White House hallway—tracking shots require focus, precision, and patience from crew and actors alike.

The Wide Shot (or Long Shot)
The wide shot gives the audience a sense of environment by showing an actor or actors from far away, generally framed from the top of their heads to the bottom of their feet. There is some room for movement within the frame, though wide shots are used sparingly and (usually) for only a small part of the scene.

The Two-Shot
The two-shot is just what it sounds like: two subjects together in a semi-tight frame. It can take several forms, from a mostly still shot used to establish the relationship between two characters to an action shot with two actors in frame.

The Over-the-Shoulder Shot
This popular method for shooting two characters tightly focuses on one actor while framing the shot over the other actor’s back and shoulder. This helps the audience focus on one speaker at a time while framing them in the context of their conversation. Since the second actor is only seen from behind, major film and television sets occasionally substitute a stand-in or photo double for over-the-shoulder shots.

The Medium Shot
Generally defined as a semi-close shot that shows actors from the hips up, this shot is used to capture subtle facial expressions while still depicting body language and environment that might be lost with a tighter frame.

The Close-Up
There’s a reason Norma Desmond croons, “Alright Mr. DeMille, I’m ready for my close-up!” The close-up shot is arguably the actor’s most important moment on set, and requires a high level of focus and skillful subtlety. Close-ups are usually framed from the shoulders up, and capture even the tiniest facial variations. Pro-tip: Actors can save their editors a major headache by avoiding overlapping dialogue in close-up scenes. It’s easy to manually add overlap when cutting close-ups together, but near impossible to remove it; for this reason, most directors prefer “clean dialogue” with a small space between each line.

The Extreme Close-Up
The extreme close-up depicts intense emotion or fear by focusing very tightly on one small part of the actors face, such as a roving eye or tightening lip. Artistic, dramatic, and bold, this shot is used sparingly but effectively in high-tension films and television shows!

Friday, March 27, 2015

Pilot Season: You Got the Power!

By Risa Bramon Garcia and Steve Braun | Backstage!

Every pilot season we suffer. We suffer through the pressure cooker of casting a pilot. We suffer through this manufactured marathon called pilot season, as hundreds of creators and business folk scramble to make between 22 and 44 minutes of network broadcast television that they pray will be unique enough to catch the brass ring, doing whatever they can to be handpicked from a crowd of other desperately driven pilots to get on the air. The town goes insane, everyone drunk with hope and despair, everyone turning themselves inside out, as four networks and several studios try to cast 90 pilots at once. Each of us competing for actors, uncertain of what we’re really looking for until an actor’s slipped out of our grasp. Did we want him anyway? Was she even right? Will we ever find it again? We’re racing 100 miles an hour into a brick wall. It’s ridiculous. It’s counterintuitive. Often counterproductive. Always intensely frustrating. But every year we do it. Every year we’re hundreds of salmon swimming upstream.

Then you, the actor, walk right into this maelstrom. You enter a crowded audition room and look into the eyes of forced-friendly writers, directors, producers, and casting directors, welcoming you into their anxious but hopeful piece of pilot real estate. And there you are: “Hello, hello. Thanks for having me. Anything I should know? OK, well, let’s do it.” And you’re off.

But what happens so often—more often than not—is that you start the scene and gradually drift away. You disappear. And each time that happens, our hearts sink. In our Studio B, where we do most of our casting, the camera and the reader face a corner. And that corner has become a vortex, pulling you away from us, from the reader, from yourself, and into some blighted region of neutrality. You get lost in regimented choices you made that you’re now presenting by rote. Or you get stuck “in your head,” trying to remember your lines. Or you’re rendered immobile with fear or anxiety, making this “audition” the test of your talent. You forfeit your exceptional voice to a breakdown or to an idea you have of what a show creator or network might want. You vanish.

And your anxious, hopeful audience deflates. You see, each time an actor enters the room, they look to you with such anticipation that you’d think that you were carrying their souls. And you know what… you are. You are the possessor of possibility. If they hear their writing in ways they imagined, or in ways they never dreamed possible, their futures look like nirvana. But if you start acting all over the place, forcing a prepared performance, or if you disappear into that abyss, their dreams of nine years on the air are instantly dashed. They despair; their hearts sink. Or, alternatively, they get anxious, fearing that their prized pilot script might not work after all. They start drawing demented stick figures on their session sheet, ripping through the paper in frustration.

So, who has the power here? “Who can take a nothing day, and suddenly make it all seem worthwhile?” Truth is, you have incredible freedom. Ultimate power. But here’s the trick:

You must not take on their anxiety. Or their hopes and dreams. The stakes are high for them but that’s their drama. Nor can you bring in your own dreams of red carpets and six-figure salaries. Your job is to do such wonderful work that they believe they’ve seen the light. They are waiting to fall in love with you; they’re praying for magic to happen. You are in the driver’s seat. You can take them to the Promised Land.

Your job is to take a piece of untried material, just in its inception, and to be adventurous—to find where this story, where this character lives in you, to be so specific and personal in your choices that you own them completely. And then to engage fully with the reader. If that proves challenging, listen to Steve’s audio below: “The Gift of a Bad Reader.” You have to be so present and so committed that there is nobody else imaginable for this role—at least for your 10 minutes right there in the room (or as they’re watching you on tape).

Your job is to show up to collaborate. The creative team—as much as they love their show (and they will love it with the infatuation of a brand new love affair)—do not know what they want. They may think they do, but they really don’t. Hell, they barely know each other. The director likely just met the show creator. The casting director just met them all. They’re hearing the material out loud for the first time. They’re in early stages of pre-production while only weeks from shooting, with a crew they’ve never met. They’re only just figuring it out, needing that someone to show up in their full power. Maybe they just lost the hot TV star who took another pilot. Maybe the last 10 actors were invisible. This is your moment. When you’re able to offer your strong point of view, your rich emotional life, your deep engagement with the other character(s), it all begins to make sense to them in a way they never imagined but always hoped for. When you’re the actor who walks in (or tapes) and inhabits the role, you define it and it’s undeniable to everyone, and every producer and executive is there ready to take credit for you.

You can do that kind of work. In fact, you have to do that. You have to step up. The thing is, if the studio is going to put millions of their pilot dollars on you, and the producer, writer, show runner, and director have put their careers on the line, you have to be ready for prime time. You have to be that definitive actor who will help get their show on the air, a concern that nags at them day and night as they compete for one of the few spots available on the network schedule.

Ask yourself: How would Bryan Cranston or Frances McDormand or Mark Rylance read for a role. Would any of them give up their astoundingly bold expression? Would they do it exactly the same way they rehearsed it in their car? Would they disappear into the corner? Hardly. So neither should you.

We advocate for this at the BGB Studio. It is part of our audition revolution; we want so much for you to be courageous enough to walk into the room in your power, sharing your unique expression. Because even if you’re—dare we say it—“wrong,” you’re in the work. You’re someone who shows up with enough force as a fellow creative partner in the process. You’ve got a seat at the table.

Do the kind of work you’d be daring enough to do if nothing was on the line. And now do it with Olympic power. Everyone is waiting for you to change the room, change their lives. You have the power to do that.

Listen: “The Gift of a Bad Reader”

Be in the work with us at The BGB Studio for new classes in the studio and online.

Like this advice? Check out more from our Backstage Experts!

Risa Bramon Garcia is a director, casting director, owner of The BGB Studio and Backstage Expert. For more information, check out Bramon Garcia’s full bio!

Steve Braun is an L.A.-based acting coach, actor, owner of The BGB Studio, and Backstage Expert. For more information, check out Braun’s full bio!

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

To Topple an Empire...Trailer (Art Lynch as Vincent Donnelly)

I play the mob boss of an empire on the verge of being toppled. Can't wait for the film to come out and for film that can be used on my reel.  - Art Lynch

Sunday, March 22, 2015

California concerning talant fees, services and actor rights...

What follows is the text of AB 1319,


SECTION 1. The Legislature finds that there exist in connection with a substantial number of contracts for talent services, sales practices and business and financing methods which have worked a fraud, deceit, imposition, and financial hardship upon the people of this state, particularly upon children and other minors; that existing legal remedies are inadequate to correct these abuses; that the talent industry has a significant impact upon the economy and well-being of this state and its local communities; and that the provisions of this act relating to these are necessary for the public welfare.

The Legislature declares that the purpose of this act is to safeguard the public against fraud, deceit, imposition, and financial hardship, and to foster and encourage competition, fair dealing, and prosperity in the field of talent services by prohibiting or restricting false or misleading advertising and other unfair, dishonest, deceptive, destructive, unscrupulous, and fraudulent business practices by which the public has been injured in connection with talent services.

Nothing in this act is intended to prohibit talent training services, talent counseling services, and talent listing services from conducting business provided they comply with the provisions and prohibitions set forth in this act.

Nothing in this chapter is intended to prohibit legitimate contractual business relationships between artists and bona fide record companies or to excuse a person from complying with Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 1700).

SEC. 2. Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 1701) of Part 6 of Division 2 of the Labor Code is repealed.

SEC. 3. Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 1701) is added to Part 6 of Division 2 of the Labor Code, to read:

CHAPTER 4.5. Fee-Related Talent Services

Article 1. Definitions

1701. For purposes of this chapter, the following terms have the following meanings:

(a) "Artist" means a person who is or seeks to become an actor, actress, model, extra, radio artist, musical artist, musical organization, director, musical director, writer, cinematographer, composer, lyricist, arranger, or other person rendering professional services in motion picture, theatrical, radio, television, Internet, print media, or other entertainment enterprises or technologies.

(b) "Audition" means any activity for the purpose of obtaining employment, compensated or not, as an artist whereby an artist meets with, interviews or performs before, or displays his or her talent before, any person, including a producer, a director, or a casting director, or an associate, representative, or designee of a producer, director, or casting director, who has, or is represented to have, input into the decision to select an artist for an employment opportunity. An "audition" may be in-person or through electronic means, live or recorded, and may include a performance or other display of the artist's promotional materials.

(c) "Employment opportunity" means the opportunity to obtain work as an artist, whether compensated or not.

(d) "Fee" means any money or other valuable consideration paid or promised to be paid by or on behalf of an artist for services rendered or to be rendered by any person conducting business under this chapter. "Fee" does not include the following:

(1) A fee calculated as a percentage of the income earned by the artist for his or her employment as an artist.

(2) (A) Reimbursements for out-of-pocket costs actually incurred by the payee on behalf of the artist for services rendered or goods provided to the artist by an independent third party if all of the following conditions are met:

(i) The payee has no direct or indirect financial interest in the third party.

(ii) The payee does not accept any referral fee, kickback, or other consideration for referring the artist.

(iii) The services rendered or goods provided for the out-of-pocket costs are not, and are not represented to be, a condition for the payee to register or list the artist with the payee.

(iv) The payee maintains adequate records to establish that the amount to be reimbursed was actually advanced or owed to a third party and that the third party is not a person with whom the payee has a direct or indirect financial interest or from whom the payee receives any consideration for referring the artist. To satisfy this condition, the payee shall maintain the records for at least three years and make them available for inspection and copying within 24 hours of a written request by the Labor Commissioner, the Attorney General, a district attorney, a city attorney, or a state or local enforcement agency.

(B) A person asserting a defense based upon this paragraph has the burden of producing evidence to support the defense.

(3) Appearances, marketing, or similar activities by an artist rendered in the context of promoting that artist's career.

(4) Royalties or profit participation from work or services as an artist payable under a bona fide contractual obligation.

(e) "Person" means an individual, company, society, firm, partnership, association, corporation, limited liability company, trust, or other organization.

(f) "Talent counseling service" means a person who does not manage or direct the development of an artist's career and who, for a fee from, or on behalf of, an artist, provides or offers to provide, or advertises or represents itself as providing, that artist, directly or by referral to another person, with career counseling, vocational guidance, aptitude testing, or career evaluation as an artist.

(g) "Talent listing service" means a person who, for a fee from, or on behalf of, an artist, provides or offers to provide, or advertises or represents itself as providing, an artist, directly or by referral to another person, with any of the following:

(1) A list of one or more auditions or employment opportunities.

(2) A list of talent agents or talent managers, including an associate, representative, or designee thereof.

(3) A search, or providing the artist with the ability to perform a self-directed search, of any database for an audition or employment opportunity, or a database of talent agents or talent managers, or an associate, representative, or designee thereof.

(4) Storage or maintenance for distribution or disclosure to a person represented as offering an audition or employment opportunity, or to a talent agent, talent manager, or an associate, representative, or designee of a talent agent or talent manager, of either of the following: (A) an artist's name, photograph, Internet website, filmstrip, videotape, audition tape, demonstration reel, resumé, portfolio, or other reproduction or promotional material of the artist or (B) an artist's schedule of availability for an audition or employment opportunity.

(h) "Talent scout" means an individual employed, appointed, or authorized by a talent service, who solicits or attempts to solicit an artist for the purpose of becoming a client of the service. The principals of a service are themselves talent scouts if they solicit on behalf of the service.

(i) "Talent service" means a talent counseling service, a talent listing service, or a talent training service.

(j) "Talent training service" means a person who, for a fee from, or on behalf of, an artist, provides or offers to provide, or advertises or represents itself as providing, an artist, directly or by referral to another person, with lessons, coaching, seminars, workshops, or similar training as an artist.

Article 2. Advance-Fee Talent Representation Service

1702. No person shall own, operate, or act in the capacity of an advance-fee talent representation service or advertise, solicit for, or knowingly refer a person to, an advance-fee talent representation service.

1702.1. (a) "Advance-fee talent representation service" means a person who provides or offers to provide, or advertises or represents itself as providing, an artist, directly or by referral to another person, with one or more of the following services described below, provided that the person charges or receives a fee from or on behalf of an artist for photographs, Internet websites, or other reproductions or other promotional materials as an artist; lessons, coaching, seminars, workshops, or similar training for an artist; or for one or more of the following services:

(1) Procuring or attempting to procure an employment opportunity or an engagement as an artist.

(2) Procuring or attempting to procure an audition for an artist.

(3) Managing or directing the development of an artist's career.

(4) Procuring or attempting to procure a talent agent or talent manager, including an associate, representative, or designee of a talent agent or talent manager.

(b) "Advance-fee talent representation service" also means a person who charges or receives a fee from, or on behalf of, an artist for any product or service required for the artist to obtain, from or through the person, any of the services described in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, of subdivision (a).

1702.3. A person who violates Section 1702 is subject to the provisions of Article 4 (commencing with Section 1704).

1702.4. This article does not apply to the following:

(a) A public educational institution.

(b) A nonprofit corporation, organized to achieve economic adjustment and civic betterment, give vocational guidance, including employment counseling services, and assist in the placement of its members or others, if all of the following conditions exist:

(1) None of the corporation's directors, officers, or employees receive any compensation other than a nominal salary for services performed for the corporation.

(2) The corporation does not charge a fee for its services, although it may request a voluntary contribution.

(3) The corporation uses any membership dues or fees solely for maintenance.

(c) A nonprofit corporation, formed in good faith for the promotion and advancement of the general professional interests of its members, that maintains a placement service principally engaged to secure employment for its members with the state or a county, city, district, or other public agency under contracts providing employment for one year or longer, or with a nonprofit corporation exempted by subdivision (b).

(d) A labor organization, as defined in Section 1117.

(e) A newspaper, bona fide newsletter, magazine, trade or professional journal, or other publication of general circulation, whether in print or on the Internet, that has as its main purpose the dissemination of news, reports, trade or professional information, or information not intended to assist in locating, securing, or procuring employment or assignments for others.

(f) A public institution.

Article 3. Other Talent Services

1703. (a) Every contract and agreement between an artist and a talent service shall be in writing, in at least 10-point type, and contain all of the following provisions:

(1) The name, address, telephone number, fax number (if any), email address (if any), and Internet website address (if any), of the talent service, the artist to whom services are to be provided, and the representative executing the contract on behalf of the talent service.

(2) A description of the services to be performed, a statement when those services are to be provided, and the duration of the contract.

(3) Evidence of compliance with applicable bonding requirements, including the name of the bonding company and the bond number, if any, and a statement that a bond in the amount of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) must be posted with the Labor Commissioner.

(4) The amount of any fees to be charged to or collected from, or on behalf of, the artist receiving the services, and the date or dates when those fees are required to be paid.

(5) The following statements, in boldface type and in close proximity to the artist's signature:





(enter date of transaction)
You may cancel this contract and obtain a full refund, without any penalty or obligation, if notice of cancellation is given, in writing, within 10 business days from the above date or the date on which you commence utilizing the services under the contract, whichever is longer. For purposes of this section, business days are Monday through Friday.

To cancel this contract, mail or deliver or send by facsimile transmission a signed and dated copy of the following cancellation notice or any other written notice of cancellation to (name of talent service) at (address of its place of business), fax number (if any), email address (if any), and Internet website address (if any), NOT LATER THAN MIDNIGHT OF (date).

If the contract was executed in part or in whole through the Internet, you may cancel the contract by sending the notification to: (email address).

I hereby cancel this contract.
Dated: Artist Signature.

If you cancel, all fees you have paid must be refunded to you within 10 business days after delivery of the cancellation notice to the talent service."

(6) A statement conspicuously disclosing whether the artist may or may not obtain a refund after the 10-day cancellation period described in paragraph (5) has expired.

(b) Except for contracts executed over the Internet, a contract subject to this section shall be dated and signed by the artist and the representative executing the contract on behalf of the talent service. In the case of a contract executed over the Internet, the talent service shall give the artist clear and conspicuous notice of the contract terms and provide to the artist the ability to acknowledge receipt of the terms before acknowledging agreement thereto. In any dispute regarding compliance with this subdivision, the talent service shall have the burden of proving that the artist received the terms and acknowledged agreement thereto.

(c) If the talent service offers to list or display information about an artist, including a photograph, on the service's Internet website, or on a website that the talent service has authority to design or alter, the contract shall contain a notice that the talent service will remove the listing and content within 10 days of a request by the artist or, in the case of a minor, the artist's parent or guardian. The contract shall include a valid telephone number, mailing address, and email address for the talent service to which a request for removal may be made.

(d) A contract between an artist and a talent service shall be contained in a single document that includes the elements set forth in this section. A contract subject to this section that does not comply with subdivisions (a) to (f), inclusive, is voidable at the election of the artist and may be canceled by the artist at any time without any penalty or obligation.

(e) (1) An artist may cancel a contract or within 10 business days from the date he or she commences utilizing the services under the contract. An artist shall notify the talent service of the cancellation for talent services within 10 business days of the date he or she executed the contract by mailing, delivering, or sending by facsimile transmission to the talent service, a signed and dated copy of the cancellation notice or any other written notice of cancellation, or by sending a notice of cancellation via the Internet if the contract was executed in part or in whole through the Internet. A talent service shall refund all fees paid by, or on behalf of, an artist within 10 business days after delivery of the cancellation notice.

(2) Unless a talent service conspicuously discloses in the contract that cancellation is prohibited after the 10-day cancellation period described in paragraph (1), an artist may cancel a contract for talent services at any time after the 10-day cancellation period by mailing, delivering, or sending by facsimile transmission to the talent service a signed and dated copy of the cancellation notice or any other written notice of cancellation, or by sending a notice of cancellation via the Internet if the contract was executed in part or in whole through the Internet. Within 10 business days after delivery of the cancellation notice, the talent service shall refund to the artist on a pro rata basis all fees paid by, or on behalf of, the artist.

(f) A contract between an artist and a talent service shall have a term of not more than one year and shall not be renewed automatically.

(g) The talent service shall maintain the address set forth in the contract for receipt of cancellation and for removal of an Internet website or other listing, unless it furnishes the artist with written notice of a change of address. Written notice of a change of address may be done by email if the artist designates an email address in the contract for purposes of receiving written notice.

(h) The talent service shall advise a person inquiring about canceling a contract to follow the written procedures for cancellation set forth in the contract.

(i) Before the artist signs a contract and before the artist or any person acting on his or her behalf becomes obligated to pay or pays any fee, the talent service shall provide a copy of the contract to the artist for the artist to keep. If the contract was executed through the Internet, the talent service may provide a copy of the contract to the artist by making it available to be downloaded and printed through the Internet.

(j) The talent service shall maintain the original executed contract on file at its place of business.

1703.1. (a) Every person engaging in the business of a talent service shall keep and maintain records of the talent service business, including the following:

(1) The name and address of each artist contracting with the talent service.

(2) The amount of the fees paid by or for the artist during the term of the contract with the talent service.

(3) Records described in clause (iv) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1701.

(4) Records described in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 1703.6.

(5) Records described in subdivision (j) of Section 1703.

(6) Records described in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 1703.4.

(7) Records described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 1703.4.

(8) Records described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 1703.4.

(9) The name, address, date of birth, social security number, federal tax identification number, and driver's license number and state of issuance thereof, of the owner of the talent service and of the corporate officers of the talent service, if it is owned by a corporation.

(10) The legal name, principal residence address, date of birth, and driver's license number and state of issuance thereof, of every talent scout and the name each talent scout uses while soliciting artists.

(11) Any other information that the Labor Commissioner requires.

(b) All books, records, and other papers kept pursuant to this chapter by a talent service shall be open for inspection during the hours between 9am and 5pm, inclusive, Monday to Friday, inclusive, except legal holidays, by a peace officer or a representative from the Labor Commissioner, the Attorney General, any district attorney, or any city attorney. Every talent service shall furnish to the Labor Commissioner, a law enforcement officer, the Attorney General, any district attorney, or any city attorney, upon request, a true copy of those books, records, and papers, or any portion thereof, and shall make reports as the Labor Commissioner requires. The inspecting party shall maintain the confidentiality of any personal identifying information contained in the records maintained pursuant to this section, and shall not share, sell, or transfer the information to any third party unless it is otherwise authorized by state or federal law.

A written or verbal solicitation or advertisement for an artist to perform or demonstrate any talent for the talent service, or to appear for an interview with the talent service, shall include the following clear and conspicuous statement: "This is not an audition for employment or for obtaining a talent agent or talent management."

1703.3. (a) Prior to advertising or engaging in business, a talent service shall file with the Labor Commissioner a bond in the amount of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) or a deposit in lieu of the bond pursuant to Section 995.710 of the Code of Civil Procedure. The bond shall be executed by a corporate surety qualified to do business in this state and conditioned upon compliance with this chapter. The total aggregate liability on the bond shall be limited to fifty thousand dollars ($50,000). The bond may be terminated pursuant to Section 995.440 of, or Article 13 (commencing with Section 996.310) of Chapter 2 of Title 14 of Part 2 of, the Code of Civil Procedure.

(b) The bond required by this section shall be in favor of, and payable to, the people of the State of California and shall be for the benefit of any person injured by any unlawful act, omission, or failure to provide the services of the talent service.

(c) The Labor Commissioner shall charge and collect a filing fee to cover the cost of filing the bond or deposit.

(d) (1) Whenever a deposit is made in lieu of the bond otherwise required by this section, the person asserting the claim against the deposit shall establish the claim by furnishing evidence to the Labor Commissioner of injury resulting from an unlawful act, omission, or failure to provide the services of the talent service or of a money judgment entered by a court.

(2) When a claimant has established the claim with the Labor Commissioner, the Labor Commissioner shall review and approve the claim and enter the date of the approval thereon. The claim shall be designated an approved claim.

(3) When the first claim against a particular deposit has been approved, it shall not be paid until the expiration of a period of 240 days after the date of its approval by the Labor Commissioner. Subsequent claims that are approved by the Labor Commissioner within the same 240-day period shall similarly not be paid until the expiration of that 240-day period. Upon the expiration of the 240-day period, the Labor Commissioner shall pay all approved claims from that 240-day period in full unless the deposit is insufficient, in which case every approved claim shall be paid a pro rata share of the deposit.

(4) Whenever the Labor Commissioner approves the first claim against a particular deposit after the expiration of a 240-day period, the date of approval of that claim shall begin a new 240-day period to which paragraph (3) applies with respect to any amount remaining in the deposit.

(5) After a deposit is exhausted, no further claims shall be paid by the Labor Commissioner. Claimants who have had claims paid in full or in part pursuant to paragraph (3) or (4) shall not be required to return funds received from the deposit for the benefit of other claimants.

(6) Whenever a deposit has been made in lieu of a bond, the amount of the deposit shall not be subject to attachment, garnishment, or execution with respect to an action or judgment against the assignor of the deposit, other than as to an amount as no longer needed or required for the purposes of this chapter and that would otherwise be returned to the assignor of the deposit by the Labor Commissioner.

(7) The Labor Commissioner shall return a deposit two years from the date it receives written notification from the assignor of the deposit that the assignor has ceased to engage in the business or act in the capacity of a talent service or has filed a bond pursuant to subdivision (a), provided that there are no outstanding claims against the deposit. The written notice shall include all of the following:

(A) The name, address, and telephone number of the assignor.

(B) The name, address, and telephone number of the bank at which the deposit is located.

(C) The account number of the deposit.

(D) A statement that the assignor is ceasing to engage in the business or act in the capacity of a talent service or has filed a bond with the Labor Commissioner. The Labor Commissioner shall forward an acknowledgment of receipt of the written notice to the assignor at the address indicated therein, specifying the date of receipt of the written notice and the anticipated date of release of the deposit, provided that there are then no outstanding claims against the deposit.

(8) A superior court may order the return of the deposit prior to the expiration of two years upon evidence satisfactory to the court that there are no outstanding claims against the deposit, or order the Labor Commissioner to retain the deposit for a specified period beyond the two years to resolve outstanding claims against the deposit.

(9) This subdivision applies to all deposits retained by the Labor Commissioner. The Labor Commissioner shall notify each assignor of a deposit it retains and of the applicability of this section.

(10) Compliance with Sections 1700.15 and 1700.16 of this code or Section 1812.503, 1812.510, or 1812.515 of the Civil Code shall not satisfy the requirements of this section.

1703.4. (a) A talent service, its owners, directors, officers, agents, and employees shall not do any of the following:

(1) Make or cause to be made any advertisement or representation expressly or impliedly offering the opportunity for an artist to meet with or audition before any producer, director, casting director, or any associate thereof, or any other person who makes, or is represented to make, decisions for the process of hiring artists for employment as an artist, or any talent agent or talent manager, or any associate, representative, or designee thereof, unless the talent service maintains for inspection and copying written evidence of the supporting facts, including the name, business address, and job title of all persons conducting the meeting or audition, and the title of the production and the name of the production company.

(2) Make or cause to be made any advertisement or representation that any artist, whether identified or not, has obtained an audition, employment opportunity, or employment as an artist in whole or in part by use of the talent service unless the talent service maintains for inspection written evidence of the supporting facts upon which the claim is based, including the name of the artist and the approximate dates the talent service was used by the artist.

(3) Charge or attempt to charge an artist for an audition or employment opportunity.

(4) Require an artist, as a condition for using the talent service or for obtaining an additional benefit or preferential treatment from the talent service, to pay a fee for creating or providing photographs, filmstrips, videotapes, audition tapes, demonstration reels, or other reproductions of the artist, Internet websites, casting or talent brochures, or other promotional materials for the artist.

(5) Charge or attempt to charge an artist any fee not disclosed pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 1703.

(6) Refer an artist to a person who charges the artist a fee for any service or any product in which the talent service, its owners, directors, officers, agents, or employees have a direct or indirect financial interest, unless the fee and the financial interest are conspicuously disclosed in a separate writing provided to the artist to keep prior to his or her execution of the contract with the talent service.

(7) Require an artist, as a condition for using a talent service or for obtaining any additional benefit or preferential treatment from the talent service, to pay a fee to any other talent service in which the talent service, its owners, directors, officers, agents, or employees have a direct or indirect financial interest.

(8) Accept any compensation or other consideration for referring an artist to any person charging the artist a fee.

(9) Fail to remove information about, or photographs of, the artist displayed on the talent service's Internet website, or a website that the service has the authority to design or alter, within 10 days of delivery of a request made by telephone, mail, facsimile transmission, or electronic mail from the artist or from a parent or guardian of the artist if the artist is a minor.

(b) A talent training service and talent counseling service and the owners, officers, directors, agents, and employees of the talent training service or talent counseling service shall not own, operate, or have a direct or indirect financial interest in a talent listing service.

(c) A talent listing service and its owners, officers, directors, agents, and employees shall not do either of the following:

(1) Own, operate, or have a direct or indirect financial interest in a talent training service or a talent counseling service.

(2) Provide a listing of an audition, job, or employment opportunity without written permission for the listing. A talent listing service shall keep and maintain a copy of all original listings; the name, business address, and business telephone number of the person granting permission to the talent listing service to use the listing; and the date the permission was granted.

(3) Make or cause to be made an advertisement or representation that includes the trademark, logo, name, word, or phrase of a company or organization, including a studio, production company, network, broadcaster, talent agency licensed pursuant to Section 1700.5, labor union, or organization as defined in Section 1117, in any manner that falsely or misleadingly suggests the endorsement, sponsorship, approval, or affiliation of a talent service.

1703.5. No talent scout shall use the same name as used by any other talent scout soliciting for the same talent service, and no talent service shall permit a talent scout to use the same name as used by any other talent scout soliciting for the talent service.

1703.6. This article does not apply to any of the following:

(a) An entity described in subdivisions (a), (b), (d), (e), and (f) of Section 1702.4.

(b) (1) A private educational institution established solely for educational purposes which, as a part of its curriculum, offers employment counseling to its student body and satisfies either of the following:

(A) The institution conforms to the requirements of Article 5 (commencing with Section 33190) of Chapter 2 of Part 20 of Division 2 of Title 2 of the Education Code.

(B) More than 90 percent of the students to whom instruction, training, or education is provided during any semester or other term of instruction have completed or terminated their secondary education or are beyond the age of compulsory high school attendance. A person claiming exemption under this subparagraph shall maintain adequate records to establish the age of its students, including the name, date of birth, principal residence address, principal telephone number, driver's license number and state of issuance thereof, and dates of attendance, and shall make them available for inspection and copying within 24 hours of a written request by the Labor Commissioner, the Attorney General, a district attorney, a city attorney, or a state or local law enforcement agency. The inspecting party shall maintain the confidentiality of any personal identifying information contained in the records maintained pursuant to this section, and shall not share, sell, or transfer the information to any third party unless it is otherwise authorized by state or federal law.

(2) A person claiming an exemption under this subdivision has the burden of producing evidence to establish the exemption.

(c) A psychologist or psychological corporation, licensed pursuant to Chapter 6.6 (commencing with Section 2900) of Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code, that provides psychological assessment, career or occupational counseling, or consultation and related professional services within the scope of its practice.

(d) An educational psychologist, licensed pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 4980) of Chapter 13 of Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code, who provides counseling services within the scope of his or her practice.

(e) A talent listing service, if all of the following apply:

(1) A majority interest in the service is owned by one or more colleges or universities, or alumni associations affiliated therewith, and each of the colleges or universities is accredited by an accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education and a member organization of the Council of Postsecondary Accreditation.

(2) The service provides services exclusively for artists who are the alumni of colleges or universities specified in paragraph (1).

(3) The service does not require, as a condition to receiving services, an applicant to have completed courses or examinations beyond the requirements for graduation from the applicant's college or university specified in paragraph (1).

(4) More than 50 percent of the annual revenues received by the service are derived from paid subscriptions of prospective employers.

(f) A public library.

Article 4. Remedies

1704. A person, including, an owner, officer, director, agent, or employee of a talent service, who willfully violates any provision of this chapter is guilty of a misdemeanor. Each violation is punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment. However, payment of restitution to an artist shall take precedence over the payment of a fine.

1704.1. The Attorney General, a district attorney, or a city attorney may institute an action for a violation of this chapter, including an action to restrain and enjoin a violation.

1704.2. A person who is injured by a violation of this chapter or by the breach of a contract subject to this chapter may bring an action for recovery of damages or to restrain and enjoin a violation, or both. The court shall award to a plaintiff who prevails in an action under this chapter reasonable attorney's fees and costs. The amount awarded for damages for a violation of this chapter shall be not less than three times the amount paid by the artist, or on behalf of the artist, to the talent service or the advance-fee talent representation service.

1704.3. The Labor Commissioner shall use the proceeds of a bond or deposit posted by a person pursuant to this chapter to satisfy a judgment or restitution order resulting from the person's violation of a provision of this chapter, if the person fails to pay all amounts required by the judgment or restitution order.

Article 5. General Provisions

1705. The provisions of this chapter are not exclusive and do not relieve a person subject to this chapter from the duty to comply with all other laws.

1705.1. The remedies provided in this chapter are not exclusive and shall be in addition to any other remedies or procedures provided in any other law, including Section 17500 of the Business and Professions Code.

1705.2. A waiver by an artist of the provisions of this chapter is deemed contrary to public policy and void and unenforceable. An attempt by a person or a talent service to have an artist waive his or her rights under this chapter is a violation of this chapter.

1705.3. If any provision of this chapter or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held unconstitutional, the remainder of the chapter and the application of that provision to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

1705.4. Compliance with this chapter does not satisfy and is not a substitute for the requirements mandated by any other applicable law, including the obligation to obtain a license under the Talent Agencies Act (Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 1700)), prior to procuring, offering, promising, or attempting to procure employment or engagements for artists.

SEC. 4. No reimbursement is required by this act pursuant to Section 6 of Article XIIIB of the California Constitution because the only costs that may be incurred by a local agency or school district will be incurred because this act creates a new crime or infraction, eliminates a crime or infraction, or changes the penalty for a crime or infraction, within the meaning of Section 17556 of the Government Code, or changes the definition of a crime within the meaning of Section 6 of Article XIIIB of the California Constitution.

Friday, March 20, 2015

‘Midnight Rider’ Accident: New Video Of Horror On Georgia Train Trestle

PUBLIC SPEAKING notes and review 3/20/2015

Take a breath, review what is below and read, research and study what you may need additional information or help on below. Feel free to ask questions in class and/or contact the instructor.

There is more here than you will need to learn and apply in the remainder of the term..

Do not be concerned, but do ask questions, as some of this was never covered in class and will not be on the exam...
Important review of lecture, notes, text and common sense…

Thumbnail or Keynote Outline is a brief summary of your full outline, with only the key points and only a word or few words per idea.

Full Outline and References, must have APA referencing, including inside the outline itself as well as at the end of the outline. It needs to use traditional outline format (I.; A ; 1, ; a ; I ; etc.)

Narrative is a short summary of your speech, no more than a page, preferably a short paragraph. It is a short version of an abstract on your speech. See abstracts for academic or scholarly articles.
  Developing Your Speech


The length of a speech is important
In the “real world” timing could be crucial to an event
Shoot for minimum to middle length, as most of the time you may say more than you intended or can stretch. Danger is if you forget portions of your speech and cannot find a way to reach the minimum length.


Use your name at least once or twice, to humanize and personalize the speaker.

First Step:

Private purpose – your reason for being interested in and wanting to do the speech. The stronger the better. Passion and unseen Ethos and Pathos comes from this.

Public purpose- the reason for doing the speech topic that you reveal to the audience. Your passion and interests are then revealed to support your speech. Can be the same as private, but make sure no one is endangered or hurt, including yourself, if you reveal the private reason. Strongest choice is usually to reveal the private reason.

Thesis Statement- Your short, one sentence statement that says what you want to say. The stronger, the better.

Next: Use scientific method of thesis, conclusion, doing research in between, Change the conclusion or admit you were wrong if that is what you find out.

Finally, prepare the speech, as indicated in four chapters of the text,
Body first.
Conclusion than

Now do the outlines and above all practice the speech.

You do not have to say everything that is in your full outline.
  Communication Model Additional Info

The Power of the Receiver: Using Screens to control information flow 1) Property. You own your attention and can store it wherever you wish. You have CONTROL.

2) Mobility. You can securely move your attention wherever you want whenever you want to. You have the ability to TRANSFER your attention.
3) Economy. You can pay attention to whomever you wish and receive value in return. Your attention has WORTH.
4) Transparency. You can see exactly how your attention is being used. You can DECIDE whom you trust. When you give your attention to any entity.

Any transmitter must understand the codes, noise / filters / screens, objectives and objections of the intended receiver.

In a world of mixed, multiple, constant and intrusive messages it is best for both the transmitter and receiver to remember the powers of property, mobility, economy and transparency in communication transactions.


See previous week’s notes, textbook, other handouts, and demonstration outline links.
Use the Writing Center for assistance if needed.

Presentation Aids.

Review the Textbook.
Search Internet for ideas, clarification, samples

Presentation and Visual Airs, keep it simple, easy to read, large enough and simple to understand. Digital cameras, computers, flip charts, posters (foam backing best), photo enlargements, title cards (use but do not count), overheads, pass outs, pass-around (not usually a good idea), models, music, food, drink, samples, pamphlets. Etc.

Must be key to speech and actually used, not just presented to meet requirements.

Visual aids should reinforce and support what you are presenting. They usually will be used ore exposed after introducing the concept they support or reinforce.

PowerPoint is acceptable, but you should never read the actual power point screen, you should be talking about the concept just prior to it being exposed to the audience, should avoid unneeded flash or distractions from your points and speech and should use an additional visual or presentation aid (other than power point) for any presentation. Avoid using computer presentation if possible and always arrange in advance, as computer access in some classrooms may be limited. Always bring your own computer and a connection to the television in the classroom as a back up should projector not be available at the time requested. Remote controls are also recommended.

Screen any questionable material with teacher in advance. Use disclaimer if needed.

Presentation Aids are visual (sight), auditory (sound), olfactory (smell) materials used to enhance or clarify your speech. Objects, posters, photographs, video, CD’s, performance, overheads, graphs, charts, handouts, slides, Power Point, flip charts, demonstrations, etc.

Visual Aids are the subset that can be seen. Objects, posters, graphs, etc.

Icons: visual representations of an idea, location or thing.

Using presentation aids:

Emphasize or explain key points or overall topic.

Break down complex information.
Simplify complex images or unseen images.

Substitute when necessary for having actual objects or samples.
People have different learning styles.
Use differencing senses, modes of thinking, and differing skills at communication.

Visual learners need to see information to best comprehend it.

Auditory learners need to hear the information.

Kinesthetic learners

Presentation Aids

Presentation Aids are visual, auditory or other material used to enhance or clarify your presentation information. Be sure to review the Rules for Using Presentation Aids located on pages 1054 t 105 in your text. Ask instructor questions in advance of working on aids. Plan and rehearse you aids and allow time for drafts, changes and comfort of presentation. Make sure your aids are ethical, add to the presentation, and support a point or the overall message of the presentation. Do a disclaimer if necessary (always see instructor in advance or risk point loss or possible failure on the speech). Remember CCSN’s basic rules concerning aids as presented in first lecture. See syllabus.
  1.     When to use
1.    When appropriate
2.    Supports major point or idea
3.    Illustrates difficult to understand concepts
4.    Maximum Impact
5.    Avoid too much information
6.    Avoid clutter
7.    Choose material carefully
8.    Balance variety with coherence
9.    Use large lettering
10. Serif on printed boards, san-serif best on computer visuals
11. Upper case best, with capital larger
12. Colors are key, avoid red, yellow and light colors for lettering
13. Colors provide mood, setting, contrast
14. Do not become overly PowerPoint dependent
2.    Visual Design and execution are important

3.     Presentation Aids may and should increase the clarity of the speech. A.    May or can supplement abstract messages with sensory representations B.    Enhance understanding C.   Add authenticity D.   To add variety E.    Increase attention F.    Renew attention G.   For transitions H.   To improve delivery I.      To create or increase lasting impact J.     Neat, attractive, well thought our aids enhance credibility

2.     Presentation aids are almost mandatory in most presentation settings A.    Keep audiences focused and interesting B.    Entertain or answer What’s In It for Me C.    Media society is use to multiple media I inputs and images D.   Greeks identified visual or presentation aids as a primary element of communication

3.    Kinds of aids available are limited only to your imagination
1.    People
1.    Speaker (not counted as an aid in your speech, but may be utilized)
2.    Gestures, actions, movement to illustrate ideas or transitions
3.    Dress and personal grooming to enhance or reinforce speech
4.    Personal Ethos
5.    Other People
6.    Demonstrate described activities
7.    Illustrate specific points or concepts
8.    Testimony (not too long and not make points for you)
9.    Must be willing and know what is expected of them
10. Small enough to carry but large enough to see
11. Kept out of sight until uses in the speech
12. Inanimate make for better presentations than living things (live can distract or even demand attention).
13. Be wary of dangerous, illegal of rotationally offensive objects
14. Make sure it helps make or illustrate a key point
15. Models substitute when objects are too large, unavailable, hard to see, too valuable, too fragile, too dangerous or too complex to bring to presentation or to accurately represent the points and intent of the objects use in a presentations
16. Models are representative and usually made to scale
17. Models make it easy for everyone to see and understand
18. Models are used often in museum
2.    Objects and Models

4.    Graphics or graphic visual aids
1.    Know when to use each type illustrated in the text
2.    Select only what best assists in accurately illustrating or supporting your point.
3.    Sketches or diagrams offer simplified explanations or representation

4.    Maps are good for special
1.    Keep maps simple and to scale
2.    Keep maps free of extraneous information
3.    Carefully and purposefully worked into the presentation
4.    Help create and set a feeling of place and scale

5.    Graphs make statistical information more understandable
1.    Pie Graphs show the size and proportion of a subject’s part in relation to each other and to the whole
2.    Bar graphs show comparison and contrasts between two or more related items or groups.
3.    Line graphs help to illustrate changes over time
4.    Line graphs are useful in indicating trends of growth or decline
5.    Line graphs can illustrate relationships between any two factors
6.    When plotting more than one line be certain that the audience can distinguish the lines and understand how they represents differing trends or elements.
7.    Mountain Graphs are variations of line graphs that fill in the area below the line. It is best used to accentuate the difference between two lines on the same graph or to enhance the strength of a growth or declining trend.

6.    Charts provide summaries of processes and relationships
1.    Often charts are overly simplistic and should be used not as evidence but as a representation of possible interpretations
2.    Flow charts are used to show steps in a process
3.    Flow charts can also be used to show power and responsibility relationships
4.    Do not clutter up a flow charts, instead use sequenced charts shown in succession.
5.    Charts can use icons, pictographs or other visually symbolic representations

7.    Textual Graphics are lists of phrases, words or numbers
1.    Key terms can assist audience in following complicated issues
2.    Bulleted lists work well with other graphics
3.    Bulleted lists help viewers prioritize and understand structure
4.    Acronym use letters from words (usually first letters) to implant ideas in the minds of the audience that makes the speech more memorable.
5.    Acronyms may also represent organizations, ideas, idioms, jargon or shorthand for complex conceptualizations in a variety of subjects.
6.    Acronyms must be explained at least once anytime they are used, because the same acronym may have differing meanings to different groups

8.    Photographs and Pictures have advantages and disadvantages
1.    Can have distracting details
2.    May be too small or too subtle
3.    Distracting when passed around instead of large display
4.    Can take attention away from the speaker when not best time to do so
5.    May cause differing thoughts or emotions in different audience members
6.    Can be altered or taken out of context
7.    “Is worth a thousand words”
8.    Can be memorable and help reinforce concepts or points in a presentation

5.    Media For Presentation Aids
1.    Flip Charts
2.    Posters (use stock or board to keep stiff, non distracting and easy to see
3.    Poster Boards (same idea)

4.    Handouts
1.    Use only when needed
2.    Can distract by having people read ahead or having too much information
3.    Best used with professional groups accustomed to working with handouts during presentations or who require detailed written presentations
4.    Can be offered after speech for less of a distraction
5.    Never distribute handouts during the presentation (before or after only)
6.    Allows spontaneous adaptation to audience feedback
7.    Can be made as current and topical as necessary
8.    Can showcase bad handwriting or spelling skills
9.    Dirty or dusty process
10. May lead speakers to put their backs to the audience
11. Helps focus audience attention
12. Make sure letters and graphics are large enough to be seen and understood
13. Do not overuse chalkboard
5.    Chalk board (not counted as aid in your COM 110 speeches, but may be used as needed or desired).

6.    Overheads
1.    Best for a larger audience
2.    Do not completely darken the room
3.    Make sure they can be read and seen by audience
4.    Keep them simple and easy to read
5.    Use of pen allows revision or highlight during presentation
6.    Allows eye contact with the audience while slides are overhead
7.    Simple and easy to use visual reinforcement of the speech
8.    Do not overuse
9.    Can require speaker to stand by projector, limiting movement range and podium use
10. Always check equipment ahead of time and be ready to go on without overheads if necessary (true of all presentation aids).
11. Do not substitute overheads for actual speaker to audience contact or presentation.

7.    Slides
1.    Best in a large presentation situation
2.    Must darken room, limits notes and eye contact
3.    Clearer and crisper than overheads
4.    Best for photographic presentations or art work
5.    Cost and availability may become an issues

8.    Audio
1.    Strong potential pathos and mythos
2.    Can assist in mood, flow and pace
3.    Can authenticate
4.    Excellent way for secondary ethos (interviews, etc.)
5.    Can gain or maintain audience interests
6.    Use with specific care to subject matter
7.    Do not talk over lyrics or words
8.    Take care with volume,
9.    Take care with language,
10. Keep in mind audience sensibilities

9.    Video
1.    Strongest potential
2.    Must be specific and to the point being made
3.    Keep length from dominating speech
4.    Can authenticate presentation
5.    Adds variety to presentation
6.    Appealing to video generation
7.    Sound, movement, light, graphics included
8.    Can transport the audience to other locations
9.    Potential strong for pathos and mythos
10. Potential strong for secondary ethos
11. Keep short and carefully cued and edited
12. Be ready to go if video equipment fails or not available

10. Computer Generated
1.    Danger of overuse
2.    Danger of ethical misuse
3.    Danger of distracting from speaker
4.    Strong ability to merge other aids
5.    Strong ability to make smaller images seen
6.    Strong ability to reinforce points graphically
7.    Easy and abundance of tools available
8.    Most all presentation tools can be augmented, altered, prepared, edited or in other ways complimented or polished using computers
9.    Can bring text, pictures, artwork, slides, video, audio, animations and other material into a cohesive presentation
10. Should reveal graphic after initially mentioning point supported by graphics
11. Should not let the computer presentation be or upstage the speaker or speakers entire presentation

11. Substantive presentation takes priority over any and all presentation tools

6.    Presentation Presentation Aids should adhere to the basic principles of design
1.    Visible to the entire audience
2.    Easy to read and understand by the entire audience
3.    Emphasize the central idea or main points of the presentation

4.    Pleasing and balanced to the eye (or ear)
1.    Focal point should balance graphic and textual materials
2.    Adequate margins
3.    Use of color should be complimentary and easy to read

5.    Sourced. Site sources for information presented on or for the images used in a presentation aid (ethical and legal responsibilities).
6.    Color
1.    Attention and interests
2.    Can influence moods and impressions
Examples red excites, blue indicates power and stability, green comfort, etc.

1.    Keep in mind that some audience members may be color blind
2.    Colors should stand out from background
3.    Colors can sway opinion, emotions, priorities
4.    The impact of color may vary by culture

7.    Selection, preparation and use of presentation aids takes time and planning
1.    Should have rough and practice drafts just as with the rest of the speech
2.    Abandon use if aid does not support or work in the flow of a speech
3.    All aids should support specific points or overall theme of speech
4.    Aids should compliment the speaker and the speech, not distract
5.    Avoid clutter with too much information, unneeded materials or too many aids in a single presentation for the time allotted or topic selected
6.    Practice using the aid, integrate it into the presentation
7.    Text it out in the room or space where it will be used
8.    Check on all electronic or other support aids needed for your presentation aid to work.
9.    Do not display your aid until you are ready to use it.
10. Make sure your aid can be seen or heard (watch where you stand, site lines, etc,)
11. Point to or indicate the aid was needed, but do not overuse or distract in doing so.
12. Do not leave your audience searching or wondering about the aid
13. Explain as needed
14. Do not distribute materials during a speech
15. Do not pass around items or photographs during a speech
16. Do not use too many presentation aids in a single speech
17. Plan the time it takes to use the aid into your presentation time
18. Make sure you can have quick set up and tear down of your aids or material
19. Think of the staging of the aids as theater and ask if they would help or distract you if you were watching instead of giving the presentation
20. Do no read your aids, let the audience read or use them.
21. Do not let your aid get in the way of your eye contact or other public speaking skills or tools.

Ethic include use of presentation aids
Truthful and non-harmful (declaimer or do not use if harmful).
Alert audience if any images have been altered
Does the image represent an underlying truth?
Is there a valid reason for its use?
Has the image been manipulated, and if so by whom, why and does it remain truthful?
Context. Does it hold up in context? Has it been taken out of context?
Be healthily skeptical about images and other presentation aids
(Commissar’s image, Internet contextual miss-representation, sequential manipulation, others)
Should not take the place of other evidence or support for claims.
Remember that images carry ethical responsibity and can harm or willfully mislead


Freedom of Speech does not guarantee freedom from consequence.

All Speech or any communication can change the lives or attitudes of listeners.

You are not free to willfully harm others, in speech or action.

Freedoms are not rights, but privileges. They can be abused or even taken away when they interfere with the rights of others.

Define ethics.

The study of human moral conduct or the branch of philosophy that addresses the right and wrong in human conduct.

A set of moral principals.
Moral, correct, right, proper, just, righteous, honorable, decent, upright, principled, fair, honest, good, virtuous, noble.
Varies by culture and individual, but generally a map or plan to determine right from wrong, truth from falsehood, acceptable form unacceptable.

8.    Truthful and non-harmful (declaimer or do not use if harmful).
9.    Should not take the place of other evidence or support for claims.
10. Alert audience if any images have been altered
11. Does the image represent an underlying truth?
12. Is there a valid reason for its use?
13. Has the image been manipulated, and if so by whom, why and does it remain truthful?
14. Context. Does it hold up in context? Has it been taken out of context?
15. Be healthily skeptical about images and other presentation aids
(Commissar’s image, Internet contextual misrepresentation, sequential manipulation, others)

Remember that images carry ethical responsibility and can harm or willfully mislead.

Truth as objective or subjective.

Differentiate between absolute, platonic, relative and Aristotelian truths. See text.

Who were the Sophists?
What is the relationship between culture and truth?
Who is dogmatism?
What is ethnocentrism?
Define Ethos, Pathos, Logos and Mythos.
Give a more detailed definition of Ethos.
How can you incorporate ethics, morals and rights into your speaking?

Rigidity of belief, example are basic religious beliefs (but dogmatism is not limited to religion and all religious beliefs are not necessarily dogmatic).
Given to asserting to imposing personal beliefs opinions on others.
Doctrinal in structure or belief. Doctrine exercised.
Based on prior principles.
Making unsupported acceptations.
Arbitrary, categorical, dictatorial, pontifical, imperious, peremptory, overbearing, authoritarian, autocratic, uncompromising, high-handed, self-righteous, insistent, Assertive, arrogant, domineering, obdurate, stubborn, intolerant, opinionated, pushy, non-moving in belief, imposing beliefs on others, unquestioning beliefs.

Ethics Continued
1.    Ethical Communication enhances human worth and dignity by enhancing worth and dignity through fostering truthfulness, fairness, responsibility, personal integrity, and respect for self and others.- NCA
2.    Ethics apply to both the speaker and the audience.
3.    Ethics involve contributing positive communication
4.    Critique should be both positive and negative
5.    Negative is never to attack, belittle, undermine or to create or reinforce false information or images. Negative critique is to help the speaker or listener look at their own views or styles and find ways to improve. Points out what is wrong does not have to be attack or harmful.
6.    Core Values
5.Avoid plagiarism
6. Improve listening skills
7. Freedom of expression
1.    Diversity of expression
2.    Cultural diversity
3.    Diversity of perspective
4.    Tolerance of Dissent
5.    First Amendment of the Constitution
I. –isms (sexism, ageism, racism, etc.) build walls and as such are unethical in public speaking


Bias, Prejudice, Stereotype
South Pacific example
Maids, Doctors, Drug Dealers, Writers, Scientist, Nurse, Detective, others

Take Home Quiz #1
Review concepts on Quiz

Point Speech
Private Purpose
Public Purpose
Thesis Statement

Voting Age
Electoral College

Sample Thumbnail/ Key Word / Key Note / Presentation Outlines

Review Quiz an Midterm answers and concepts

College appropriate content means researched, college level work, typed (computer typeset) without errors, college level insight, and no plagiarism, balanced, and well reasoned.

Push the envelope, be willing to present controversial or contested information or ideas. Use your interests, backgrounds, beliefs and passions in your speech presentations.

Use of pauses

Dialects (tone, pace, etc.)

Handling Audience Q&A
Steps in organizing a speech

Special Occasion Speaking
Know the types of special occasions speeches and their use
Cognitive Restructuring: change the way you think. This is only a class. I am helping these people. Who cares what they think? etc.

Body Language Use and reading of..

Rules for eye contact

Review and Reinforce Skills and Benefits

1.    Has great value in current and future life
2.    Ability to speak well is the mark of an educated person and the mark of competence in a field.
3.    Skills

2.    Organization
3.    Compose Meaningful Messages
4.    Compose coherent Messages
5.    Adapt to a Situations
6.    Adapt to Audience, Group or Market
7.    Conduct Responsible Research
8.    Conduct Academic and Balanced Research
9.    Argue and Engage in Opposing Viewpoints
10. Develop Critical and Constructive Listening Skills
4.    Vital in societies that promote open and democratic deliberation
5.    Vital in societies with capitalistic or market economies
6.    Vital for philosophical, theological, sociological, anthological or psychological study and discussion.
7.    Personal
1.    Income
2.    Success
3.    Position
4.    Knowledge
5.    Leadership
6.    Compromise
7.    Forward Progress
8.    Understanding
9.    Growth

    Review and Reinforce Tips for Success in this Course
1.    Attendance
2.    Attitude
1.    It’s only a class
2.    It will help me in life
3.    I can help others in class
4.    I will do the best I possibly can
3.    Complete all assigned readings
4.    Seek out additional readings
1.    Web CT
2.    Other text books
3.    Library research
5.    Class Participation
1.    As student
2.    As audience
3.    As team member
6.    Invest time on Speech Development
1.    Time will pay off in grades and learning experience
2.    Start working on speeches now
3.    Plan your time and time use
4.    Think of this as learning how to be a self learner
5.    Research and written material must be quality and academic
7.    Practice
1.    Polish speech
2.    Do not be afraid to change topics or change the speech
3.    Get so that you do not need note cards (Extemporaneous)

8.    Review Feedback
1.    Listen in class
2.    Listen to audience
3.    Listen to instructor
4.    Make your own notes or observations
5.    Couch things is a positive light
6.    Critique is not meant to hurt
7.    Criticism in a critique is to help
8.    Positive comments help you to build on what you do right
9.    There is no wrong, only things needed to be polished or learned.

L.    Designs/ Organization structures
1.     See previous week’s note postings
2.     See textbook (as always)
3.     Use appropriate and best design for your topic / goals
4.     All designs may be used but the four best for informative are
a.     Spatial
b.     Sequential
c.     Categorical
d.     Comparative
e.     Causation

5.     Spatial Design
a.     Effective for describing places, locations or locating subjects within a physical setting
b.     Ordered by physical location or size, or special relationship or connection
c.     Determine a starting point and proceed in an orderly manner
d.     Complete patterns of descriptions to satisfy an audience need for closure

6.     Sequential Design
a.     Move audiences through time
b.     Effective for showing times steps
c.     Effective for showing change over time
d.     Effective for placing in historical perspective
e.     See previous notes and text for types of sequential design
f.      Includes random sequence, sequence, motivated sequence and chronological designs
g.     Chronological puts main points in order of time
h.     Sequential orders main points in terms of place in a particular process or puts them into a numbered order so that the audience may follow a process



7.     Categorical Design
a.     Appropriate for subjects with natural or customary divisions
b.     Suggested that 2 to 5 categories be used
c.     Begin and end with the most interesting categories
d.     Tie category relationships together
e.     See previous notes and text for additional information
f.      Main points do not have to have an inherent relation to each other

8.     Comparative Designs
a.     Helpful with new, abstract or difficult subjects
b.     Helpful for describing changes
c.     Helpful contrasting differing issues and proposals
d.     Best to relate one topic to something the audience already understands
e.     There are three types of comparative design
1.     A literal analogy draws subjects from the same field of expertise
2.     A figurative analogy draws subjects form differing fields of expertise
3.     Comparison and contact design points to similarities and/or differences

9.     Causation Design
a.     Explains a situation, condition, or event in terms of the causes that led up to it.
b.     See previous notes and text for types of causation design